There are various psychosocial factors that may lead to substance abuse and subsequent addiction and Parkinson’s patients are not immune to these pitfalls. However, it is interesting to not that some studies have shown that patients with Parkinson’s disease seem to have a low sensation seeking and a more law abiding personality trait which could protect them against the pitfalls of substance abuse and addiction.
When other factors are involved, such as the side effects of some anti-Parkinson medicines or other drugs, depression and other psychosocial factors which may be unique to a patient suffering with a disease like Parkinson’s disease, substance abuse can become a real possibility.
The question as to whether Parkinson’s disease is related to substance abuse is discussed below. Parkinson’s patients who are abusing any substance, whether a pharmaceutical drug or other illicit substance, should realize that the misuse and their addiction could negatively impact upon their condition. Apart from drugs interactions with Parkinson’s disease medicines, may drugs can contribute to or exacerbate the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease or possibly even accelerate the progression of Parkinson’s disease.
For information on other forms of addiction – gambling, sex and so on, please refer to the article on Compulsive Behavior in Parkinson’s Disease.
There seems to be an inverse proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked and the development of Parkinson’s disease. It has been seen that patients with Parkinson’s disease are less likely to have ever smoked. Current smokers, in relation to ex-smokers, show this inverse relation better. The neuroprotective effect of cigarette smoke may be the reason for this, but should not prompt one to start smoking.
Research also shows a decreased incidence of Parkinson’s disease in people consuming large amounts of caffeine, indicating that caffeine may have a neuroprotective effect too. Consuming 2 cups or more of tea per day, or 2 or more cola drinks per day may play a role in reducing the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
While it has been suggested that alcohol consumption may protect against Parkinson’s disease, there is no clear evidence to support this theory. Moderate beer consumption may lower the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, but wine or liquor do not seem to offer any protection.
Research has shown a relationship between Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Parkinson’s disease patients sometimes become addicted to the drugs they are taking or develop various addictions as a result of their medication.
Parkinson’s disease patients lack dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain (a chemical messenger) which is responsible for motor movements as well as the ability to experience pleasure and pain. Dopamine is also involved with the reward pathway of the brain. Patients with drug addictions, on the other hand, have an excess of dopamine in their brain. This can explain how Parkinson’s disease patients, when treated with dopamine agonists (which increase the dopamine levels in the brain) start to show personality traits such as addiction which are normally alien to the patient. Treatment with levodopa does not usually produce such side effects.
Narcotics such as morphine are sometimes given to Parkinson’s disease patients to alleviate pain not responding to any other treatment. Narcotics are often prescribed in combination with other drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although not usually dangerous in prescribed doses, the potential danger of addiction remains in such patients.
MPPP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionpiperidine), is an analogue of meperidine (a synthetic opioid), a street drug. During its illicit manufacture, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) was inadvertently synthesized, whose use rapidly produced symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in the users, with toxicity leading even to death.
Methamphetamine is closely related to amphetamine but its effects on the central nervous system seem to be greater than those of amphetamine. Methamphetamine causes release of dopamine in the brain and there may be long-term impairment in dopamine function following abuse of this drug.
Studies show that cocaine-users may be more at risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Pregnant women abusing cocaine could be at increased risk of giving birth to children who will develop Parkinson’s disease later in life.
- Alcohol Consumption and the Incidence of Parkinson’s Disease
- Parkinson’s Disease Risks Associated with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Caffeine Intake